The Cowardly Man Raises his Children: Refugee Gang Violence and Masculine Norms in Cairo

Sudanese, South Sudanese, and African refugee communities in Cairo, Egypt have raised the issue of gang violence as a major concern for their communities for over a decade. Despite the damaging effects violence has on refugee communities, humanitarian organizations in Cairo have only launched a limited number of interventions to address gang violence due its complicated and sensitive nature.

This report analyzes Sudanese and South Sudanese gang violence, focusing on how conceptions of masculinity reproduce violence and influence young people as they opt to join neighborhood groups. The report explores refugee communities’ grassroots efforts to reduce violence and shows how these efforts, while fragmented due to a lack of support, have positive tangible effects. Lastly, the report analyzes whether evidence-based models for violence prevention fit the local context and makes recommendations for how humanitarian organizations could use these models to support and strengthen refugee community violence prevention efforts.






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This synthesis report reflects upon Phase 1 findings on humanitarian action in pastoral drylands of the Greater Horn and Sudano-Sahel.

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This desk study examines common perceptions of pastoralism among humanitarians and barriers to international humanitarian systems meeting pastoralists’ needs.

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This desk study explores how state-owned policies and programs in pastoral areas of the Sudano-Sahel and the Greater Horn of Africa meet pastoralists’ needs and priorities.

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This desk study explores how pastoralists manage climate, conflict, and other stresses through indigenous early warning systems, preventive actions, local emergency responses, and customary safety nets.

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This briefing describes the key elements and issues associated with conflict in pastoralist areas across sub-Saharan Africa.

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Ce document d’information décrit les éléments clés et les enjeux associés aux conflits dans les zones pastorales d’Afrique subsaharienne.

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