State Perspectives on Early Warning, Anticipatory Action, Emergency Response, and Social Protection in Pastoral Areas

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Very few governments fully embrace pastoral regions or populations, and, with the exception of Somalia, the relationships between pastoral groups and federal governments have been contentious in the Greater Horn of Africa.

Over the past three decades, however, countries like Kenya and Ethiopia have decentralized government functions to local-level structures, generating a governance system that better represents pastoralists’ needs and priorities.

This desk study explores the extent to which state-owned policies and programs are able to deliver effective emergency responses and overcome humanitarian and development silos, while incorporating pastoral needs, priorities, and strategies.

The study asserts that better aligning the state and pastoral perspectives can further improve current policies and programs, while providing more sustainable development pathways for international support.

This desk study is part of a three-year project on pastoral areas of the Sudano-Sahel and the Greater Horn of Africa. The project focuses on how early warning systems and humanitarian responses in pastoral areas can be more aligned to the realities and local needs of communities, thereby improving the lives and livelihoods of pastoralists.






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The time pressure involved in designing and implementing anticipatory action can discourage the localization of decision-making. Learn more from a cartoon-infused summary of insights.

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Early Warning Systems can reduce deaths and damages caused by extreme weather events, if investors address gaps in communication and planning. Learn more from a cartoon-infused summary of insights.

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This synthesis report reflects upon Phase 1 findings on humanitarian action in pastoral drylands of the Greater Horn and Sudano-Sahel.

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This desk study examines common perceptions of pastoralism among humanitarians and barriers to international humanitarian systems meeting pastoralists’ needs.

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This desk study explores how pastoralists manage climate, conflict, and other stresses through indigenous early warning systems, preventive actions, local emergency responses, and customary safety nets.

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This primer on pastoralism in Africa provides basic information on the core aspects of pastoralism as a livelihood and production system.

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